Research 1

Learning Goal: I’m working on a nursing multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Choose a simple discrepancy that you have noticed at work. Things should be like this, but they are like that.

A simple discrepancy that I have noticed at work is that sequential compression devices (SCDs) are not always applied BEFORE the induction of anesthesia. Below is an example

BIG PROBLEM: Post Operative Pneumonia in persons over 65 years of age cause disaiblity and can cause death .

Current DiscrepancyAll patients, especially those over 65 at risk for post op pneumonia should be able to get pre-op teaching that includes proper use of Incentive Spirometer (IS), but many patients, especially those over 65, do not get proper instructions during pre-operative education on use of the incentive spirometer.

Find four facts that help to build the current argument about the problem: IE:

1) Incentive spirometers, IS, when used properly, increase lung expansion post operatively (Eltorai et al. 2018).

2) IS and patient lung expansion reduces the incidence of post operative pneumonia (Eltorai et al. 2018).

2) Patients over 65 who are undergoing surgery with general anesthesia are at higher risk for post operative pneumonia (Marshall et al. 2021).

3) Routine pre-operative education includes information on use of Incentive Spirometers for post operative use,


Not all nurses provide the same pre-operative education with instructions for incentive spirometer use. (the current problem)

Research Question: Are all patients who receive pre operative education taught how to use an incentive spiromter?

or: Are patients who receive pre-operative education on incentive spirometer use less likely to have post op pneumonia?

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